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Range surface Element won’t work

Cooktop Element Switch

If the surface element won’t work, and there is another element of the same size on the stove, try switching the elements. If it still won’t work, the surface element switch is probably defective. The surface element switch can’t be tested or repaired, it will have to be replaced.

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Cooktop Element Board

If a surface element won’t work the surface element board might be defective. Each burner is switched on and off with the help of a relay on the surface element board. If one or more relays has failed the surface element won’t work. If two or more burners fail at the same time, this is likely the problem. If only one surface element won’t work and the element itself checks out to be good, the surface element board might be defective.

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Incoming Power Problem

Although not as common, if the surface element won’t work it is possible that the appliance is not receiving proper voltage. Electric ranges require 220 volts of alternating current. If for some reason the appliance is receiving significantly less, the surface element won’t work. Check for proper voltage using a volt meter at the socket where the appliance plugs in.

Coil Surface Element

If the surface element won’t work, the coil surface element might be burned out. Most coil surface elements can be pulled out of their socket and checked with an Ohm meter for continuity. If the surface element won’t work, check to see if there is any visible damage to the coils. Also, check to be sure the element is pushed all the way into the socket.

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Radiant Surface Element

The most common cause when the surface element won’t work is the radiant surface element itself. The radiant surface element – or heating element – can burn out similar to a light bulb. If the surface element won’t work and it doesn’t have continuity, it will need to be replaced. The radiant surface element is not repairable.

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Element Receptacle and Wire Kit

If a surface element won’t work, there may be a problem in the element receptacle. The surface element plugs onto a terminal block type receptacle. Over time the terminals in the receptacle can have a bad connection and overheat. Look at the receptacle contacts with a flashlight. If the terminals look burnt you will need to replace the element receptacle. also make sure the element prongs are clean and not burnt. If the prongs are burnt bad the element will need to be replaced also.

Range burner spark problem

Spark Module

The spark module provides power to each surface burner spark electrode. A common burner spark problem that occurs when the spark module fails is when there is a very weak spark, or the spark happens intermittently rather than the steady, continuous spark it should have. If the burner spark problem you’re experiencing is that one of the spark electrodes is not sparking and the others are this could be due to a problem with the module although it is more likely to be a problem with the individual spark electrode.

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Spark Ignition Switch

If there isn’t any spark when the burner is turned on, but there is a spark when one of the other burners is used then the spark ignition switch is probably defective. This is a common burner spark problem. Mounted on each burner control valve is a small switch, as the knob is rotated to the “Lite” position electrical contacts in the switch are pressed together and provide power to the spark module. If the spark ignition switch is defective no power is sent to the module and there is no spark. This burner spark problem is easily repaired by replacing the spark ignition switch for that burner.

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Spark Ignition Switch and Harness

If there isn’t any spark when the burner is turned on, but there is a spark when one of the other burners is used then a spark ignition switch is probably defective. This is a common burner spark problem. Mounted on each burner control valve is a small switch, as the knob is rotated to the “Lite” position electrical contacts in the switch are pressed together and provide power to the spark module. If the spark ignition switch is defective no power is sent to the module and there is no spark. This burner spark problem is easily repaired by replacing the spark ignition switch for that burner. Or if it is a switch and harness assembly replace the assembly.

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Spark Electrode

If there is a clicking sound when the burner knob is turned on, but the burner being turned on doesn’t light, the burner spark problem might be caused by a bad spark electrode. The electrode is a small device that sits right next to the burner. It functions like a spark plug. As power is applied to it a spark jumps from the spark electrode to the burner, igniting the gas. If the electrode is broken or worn out the spark may not occur or may jump to a different metal surface. This burner spark problem is easy to correct by replacing the spark electrode.

Range surface element won’t turn off

Element Switch

If the top element won’t turn off, the switch is probably defective. When the switch fails it often fuses internal contacts together, and then the top element won’t turn off. The only solution is to replace the top element switch, they can’t be tested or repaired.

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Coil Cooktop Element

If the top element won’t turn off, the coil top element might be shorted out. If there is any kind of break, crack, or hole in the coil top element, replace the element. If it won’t turn off it can cause a burn hazard, disconnect power to the stove until the element is repaired.

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Radiant Cooktop Element

If you’re radiant top element won’t turn off it may have an electrical short circuit. If this happens, the radiant top element will need to be replaced, they are not repairable.

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Solid Cooktop Element

If the solid top element won’t turn off, it might be at fault. Although the switch is usually the defective part in this situation, it’s possible that the solid top element has short circuited. If this is the problem, replace the solid surface element, they are not repairable. Inside the steel outer shell is a heating element – similar to a light bulb, that provides the heat. Sometimes these short out halfway through the element which causes them to stay on.

Range burners spark all the time

Spark Ignition Switch

If the burners spark all the time and won’t stop, one of the burner spark ignition switches is probably defective. This is a common burner spark problem. Mounted on each burner control valve is a small switch, as the knob is rotated to the “Lite” position electrical contacts in the switch are pressed together and provide power to the spark module. If the spark ignition switch is defective the contacts may stay pressed together, causing the burners to spark all the time. First determine which of the switches is defective and then replace it. Spark ignition switches are not repairable.

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Spark Module

If the burners spark all the time, one of the spark ignition switches is probably stuck. However, in some instances a bad spark module can cause this problem. After checking each of the burner switches, if the burners still spark all the time consider replacing the spark module.

Oven won't heat

Igniter

Even though the oven igniter may be glowing, it may be too weak to allow the gas valve to open. If the oven won’t heat and the oven igniter glows for more than 90 seconds without igniting the gas flame, the oven igniter should be replaced. This is the most common part that fails when the oven won’t heat.

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Bake Element

If the oven won’t heat, check the bake element. The bake element is a black tube near the bottom of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the bake element will glow red hot. If the oven won’t heat, the bake element may have burned out. It is often obvious to see where the bake element has burned out because there will be a hole in the element or blisters on the outside of the element. Test the bake element using an Ohm meter. If it has continuity it’s OK. If not, it should be replaced.

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Broil Element

If the oven won’t heat, check the broil element. The broil element is a black tube near the top of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the broil element will glow red hot. In most ovens the broil element comes on during pre-heat. If the oven won’t heat, the broil element may have burned out. It is often obvious to see where the broil element has burned out because there will be a hole in the element or blisters on the outside of the element. Test the broil element using an Ohm meter. If it has continuity it’s OK. If not, it should be replaced.

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Incoming Power Problem

Although not as common, if the oven won’t heat it is possible that the appliance is not receiving proper voltage. Electric ovens require 220 volts of alternating current. If for some reason the appliance is receiving significantly less, the oven won’t heat. Check for proper voltage using a volt meter at the socket where the appliance plugs in. For more information on this see the How It Works video above.

Thermal Fuse

Although not as common, if the oven won’t heat the thermal fuse may have blown. The thermal fuse is designed to protect the appliance and help to prevent a fire. If the oven gets too hot, this fuse trips. The thermal fuse is not resettable and will have to be replaced. It can be checked for continuity. If it has continuity, it’s OK.

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Oven Control Board

The oven control board has a set of relays that turn on and off power to the bake and broil circuits according to the customer settings and sensor input. If the oven won’t heat the problem is usually with the heating components. However, if the oven control board is bad, it might not send voltage to the heating components. To determine why the oven won’t heat, first test the simpler components in the circuit. The oven control board usually can’t be tested and will have to be replaced if it is defective.

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Loose or Burnt Wire Connection

If the oven won’t heat, there might be a burnt wire supplying power to the bake element. Sometimes the wire supplying power to the element burns out right near the element itself. Check for this by just looking at the wires leading to the element. If they’re burned out it is usually easy to spot.

Relay Board

Some ovens are equipped with a relay board. This circuit board has several relays which control the switching of electrical current to the oven heat source. If the oven won’t heat it may be that one or more of the relays on the relay board have failed. If this happens replace the relay board. The relays on the board are not sold separately.

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Safety Valve

The oven safety valve works with the oven igniter to provide gas to the burner. If the oven won’t heat it is possible that the oven safety valve is defective. However, this is very rare. Most often, the oven igniter is too weak to allow the oven safety valve to open. If the oven won’t heat, check the igniter first.

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Valve and Pressure Regulator

If the gas oven won’t heat the oven valve and pressure regulator might be at fault. This is not common. Very often people misdiagnose a defective oven valve and pressure regulator when the oven won’t heat. However, this is almost never the cause. First, inspect the other more common components before replacing these.

Oven doesn't bake evenly

Bake Element

If the oven doesn’t bake evenly, check the bake element. The bake element is a black tube near the bottom of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the bake element will glow red hot. If the oven doesn’t bake evenly, the bake element may have burned out. It is often obvious to see where the bake element has burned out because there will be a hole in the element or blisters on the outside of the element. Test the bake element using an Ohm meter. If it has continuity it’s OK. If not, it should be replaced.

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Igniter

As the oven igniter weakens over time, it will take longer for the gas valve to open. If the oven doesn’t bake evenly, it may be that the oven igniter isn’t opening the gas valve when it should. This will cause the oven to cool down more than it should before the burner reignites. The oven temperature should not cool by more than 40 degrees before the oven igniter relights the burner.

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Broil Element

If the oven doesn’t bake evenly, check the broil element. The broil element is a black tube near the top of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the broil element will glow red hot. In most ovens the broil element comes on during pre-heat. If the oven doesn’t bake evenly, the broil element may have burned out. It is often obvious to see where the broil element has burned out because there will be a hole in the element or blisters on the outside of the element. Test the broil element using an Ohm meter. If it has continuity it’s OK. If not, it should be replaced.

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Temperature Sensor

If the oven doesn’t bake evenly the oven sensor might be defective. The oven sensor works in conjunction with the oven control board – or clock – to regulate the temperature. The oven sensor is a simple electronic device which varies its resistance to electrical current as the temperature varies. If the oven doesn’t bake evenly, this oven sensor resistance might be incorrect. For small variations, often there is a calibration feature at the control board. On many models there is a certain pattern of pushing buttons in order to calibrate the control board to the oven sensor resistance. Check the owners manual for more information.

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Convection Element

If the oven doesn’t bake evenly during convection bake, the convection element might be burned out. The convection element is located near the convection fan and helps to heat the air circulating inside the oven. The convection element can be tested for continuity by using an Ohm meter. If the convection element is burned out it will need to be replaced. Because this element is supplemental, if the oven doesn’t bake evenly there might be a problem with one of the other heating elements.

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Convection Motor

If the oven doesn’t bake evenly during convection bake, the convection motor might be defective. The convection motor drives the convection fan and circulates the air inside the oven. The convection motor can be tested for continuity by using an Ohm meter. If the motor shaft doesn’t turn freely the motor bearings are probably bad. If the convection motor is burned out or it won’t turn freely it will need to be replaced.

Oven broiler problem

Broil Element

If there is an oven broiler problem, check the broil element. The broil element is a black tube near the top of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the broil element will glow red hot. If there is an oven broiler problem, the broil element may have burned out. It is often obvious to see where the broil element has burned out because there will be a hole or break in the element or blisters on the outside of the element. Test the broil element using an Ohm meter. If it has continuity it’s OK. If not, it should be replaced.

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Igniter

Even though the oven igniter may be glowing, it may be too weak to allow the gas valve to open. If oven broiler problem and the oven igniter glows for more than 90 seconds without igniting the gas flame, the oven igniter should be replaced. This is the most common part that fails when there is an oven broiler problem.

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Loose or Burnt Wire Connection

If there is an oven broiler problem, there might be a burnt wire supplying power to the broil element. Sometimes the wire supplying power to the element burns out right near the element itself. Check for this by just looking at the wires leading to the element. If they’re burned out it is usually easy to spot.

Temperature Control Thermostat

The oven thermostat regulates the broiler temperature. If there is an oven broiler problem the oven thermostat might be defective. The oven thermostat has a thin copper tube attached to a slightly thicker tube which sticks into the oven. Inside this tube is a type of hydraulic fluid. As the broiler temperature rises the fluid expands which puts pressure on a small activator inside the thermostat and shuts off the heat. As the broiler cools, the pressure reduces and the activator allows the broiler to heat. The oven thermostat is difficult to test and is not repairable. If this is the cause of the problem the oven thermostat will have to be replaced.

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Oven Control Board

The oven control board has a set of relays that turn on and off power to the bake and broil circuits according to the customer settings and sensor input. An oven broiler problem is usually caused by one of the heating components. However, if the oven control board is bad, it might not send voltage to the heating components. To determine what is causing the oven broiler problem, first test the simpler components in the circuit. The oven control board usually can’t be tested and will have to be replaced if it is defective.

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Relay Board

Some ovens are equipped with a relay board which controls the broiler. This circuit board has several relays which control the switching of electrical current to the broiler heating circuit. If there is an oven broiler problem it may be that one or more of the relays on the relay board have failed. If this happens the relay board may need to be replaced. The relays on the board are not sold separately.

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Safety Valve

The oven saftey valve is in series with the broiler igniter. When the broil igniter is on it draws current thru the valve . When the proper current draw is met the valve will open and let the gas thru. Saftey valves do not go out often. The igniter is more likely the problem. If the igniter is weak it will glow but not draw enough current to open the valve and will have to be replaced. Do not put 110 volts to the valve it will blow out the valve and it will have to be replaced.

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Valve and Pressure Regulator

If there is a gas oven broiler problem the oven valve and pressure regulator might be at fault. This is not common. Very often people misdiagnose a defective oven valve and pressure regulator when they have an oven broiler problem. However, this is almost never the cause. Look at other, more common components before replacing these.

Oven temperature problem

Bake Element

If there is an oven temperature problem, check the bake element. The bake element is a black tube near the bottom of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the bake element will glow red hot. If there is an oven temperature problem, the bake element may have burned out. In most ovens the broil element comes on during pre-heat which is enough to warm the oven up, but not to the right temperature. It is often obvious to see where the bake element has burned out because there will be a hole in the element or blisters on the outside of the element. Test the bake element using an Ohm meter. If it has continuity it’s OK. If not, it should be replaced.

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Igniter

As the oven igniter weakens over time, it will take longer for the gas valve to open. If there is an oven temperature problem, it may be that the oven igniter isn’t opening the gas valve when it should. This will cause the oven to cool down more than it should before the burner reignites. The oven temperature should not cool by more than 40 degrees before the oven igniter relights the burner. An oven temperature problem is usually easy to correct.

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Broil Element

If there is an oven temperature problem, check the broil element. The broil element is a black tube near the top of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the broil element will glow red hot. If there is an oven temperature problem, the broil element may have burned out. In most ovens the broil element comes on during pre-heat which is enough to warm the oven up, but not to the right temperature. It is often obvious to see where the broil element has burned out because there will be a hole in the element or blisters on the outside of the element. Test the broil element using an Ohm meter. If it has continuity it’s OK. If not, it should be replaced.

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Temperature Control Thermostat

The oven thermostat regulates the oven temperature. If there is an oven temperature problem, this thermostat might be defective. The thermostat is very difficult to test due to its complexity. The oven thermostat has a thin copper tube attached to a slightly thicker tube which sticks into the oven. Inside this tube is a type of hydraulic fluid. As the temperature in the oven rises the fluid expands which puts pressure on a small activator inside the thermostat and shuts off the heat. As the oven cools, the pressure reduces and the activator allows the oven to heat. If there is an oven temperature problem it could be that the thermostat activator is broken, or that the calibration has changed. The solution is to replace the oven thermostat.

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Temperature Sensor

The oven sensor works with the oven control board to regulate the oven temperature. If there is an oven temperature problem, this sensor might be defective. The sensor can be tested by using an ohm meter. As temperature rises, the resistance measurement also rises. The manufacturer of the oven sensor determines the correct resistance, if we have a testing video associated with this part, watch it to learn how to test the oven sensor. Oven temperature problems can be caused by other things, but this is one of the common causes.

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Convection Element

If there is an oven temperature problem during convection bake, the convection element might be burned out. The convection element is located near the convection fan and helps to heat the air circulating inside the oven. The convection element can be tested for continuity by using an Ohm meter. If the convection element is burned out it will need to be replaced. Because this element is supplemental, if there is an oven temperature problem there might be a problem with one of the other heating elements.

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Convection Motor

Although it is not common, if there is an oven temperature problem during convection bake, the convection motor might be defective. If the convection motor isn’t running it won’t circulate the air inside the oven. An oven temperature problem is usually due to a burned out heating element or temperature control. The convection motor can be tested for continuity using an Ohm meter. Also, if the fan blade is difficult to turn by hand, the bearings in the motor might be worn. The convection motor can’t be repaired, if it is defective it will have to be replaced.

Oven won't turn on

Bake Element

If the oven won’t turn on, check the bake element. The bake element is a black tube near the bottom of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the bake element will glow red hot. If the oven won’t turn on the bake element may have burned out. It is often obvious to see where the bake element has shorted out because there will be a hole or break in the element. If the bake element has burnt out or shorted it should be replaced.

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Igniter

Even though the oven igniter may be glowing, it may be too weak to allow the gas valve to open. If the oven won’t turn on and the oven igniter glows for more than 90 seconds without igniting the gas flame, the oven igniter should be replaced. This is the most common part that fails when the oven won’t turn on.

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Temperature Control Thermostat

If the oven won’t turn on, the oven thermostat might be defective. Although this is not as common as other components, the oven thermostat sometimes fails completely and does not allow current to pass through. After checking other, more common components, consider replacing the oven thermostat.

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Broil Element

If the oven won’t turn on, check the broil element. The broil element is a black tube near the top of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the broil element will glow red hot. If the oven won’t turn on the broil element may have burned out and caused something else to short out. It is often obvious to see where the broil element has burned out because there will be a hole in the element or blisters on the outside of the element. Test the broil element using an Ohm meter. If it has continuity it’s OK. If not, it should be replaced.

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Incoming Power Problem

Although not as common, if the oven won’t turn on it is possible that the appliance is not receiving proper voltage. Electric ovens require 220 volts of alternating current. If for some reason the appliance is receiving significantly less, the oven won’t turn on. Check for proper voltage using a volt meter at the socket where the appliance plugs in.

Thermal Fuse

Although not as common, if the oven won’t turn on the thermal fuse may have blown. The thermal fuse is designed to protect the appliance and help to prevent a fire. If the oven gets too hot, this fuse trips. The thermal fuse is not resettable and will have to be replaced. It can be checked for continuity. If it has continuity, it’s OK. Not all ovens have a thermal fuse.

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Oven Control Board

The oven control board has a set of relays that turn on and off power to the bake and broil circuits according to the customer settings and sensor input. If the oven won’t turn on the problem is usually with the heating components. However, if the oven control board is bad, it might not send voltage to the heating components. To determine why the oven won’t turn on, first test the simpler components in the circuit. The oven control board usually can’t be tested and will have to be replaced if it is defective.

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Loose or Burnt Wire Connection

If the oven won’t turn on, there might be a burnt wire supplying power to the bake element. Sometimes the wire supplying power to the element burns out right near the element itself. Check for this by just looking at the wires leading to the element. If they’re burned out it is usually easy to spot.

Safety Valve

The oven safety valve works with the oven igniter to provide gas to the burner. If the oven won’t turn on it is possible that the oven safety valve is defective. However, this is very rare. Most often, the oven igniter is too weak to allow the oven safety valve to open. If the oven won’t turn on, check the igniter first.

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Valve and Pressure Regulator

If the gas oven won’t turn on the oven valve and pressure regulator might be at fault. This is not common. Very often people misdiagnose a defective oven valve and pressure regulator when the oven won’t turn on However, this is almost never the cause. Look at other, more common components before replacing these.

Oven Won't Turn Off

Temperature Control Thermostat

If the oven won’t turn off the oven thermostat is often the cause of the problem. The electrical contacts inside the oven thermostat can weld themselves together and then the oven won’t turn off. If this happens, turn off power to the entire appliance at the household circuit breaker or fuse. The oven thermostat usually cannot be tested and must be replaced if defective.

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Oven Control Board

The oven control board has a set of relays that turn on and off power to the bake and broil circuits according to the customer settings and sensor input. If the oven won’t turn off it could be that one of the relays on the oven control board is shorted closed, providing voltage to the heating circuit. It can be dangerous if the oven won’t turn off. Don’t leave the oven unattended without turning off power to the oven.

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Bake Element

If the oven won’t turn off, check the bake element. The bake element is a black tube near the bottom of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the bake element will glow red hot. If the oven won’t turn off the bake element may have burned out and shorted to a surface in the oven. It is often obvious to see where the bake element has shorted out because there will be a hole or break in the element. If the bake element has shorted to the inside of the oven it should be replaced.

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Broil Element

If the oven won’t turn off, check the broil element. The broil element is a black tube near the top of the oven about as thick as a pencil. When it is operating normally, the broil element will glow red hot. If the oven won’t turn off the broil element may have burned out and shorted to a surface in the oven. It is often obvious to see where the broil element has shorted out because there will be a hole or break in the element. If the broil element has shorted to the inside of the oven it should be replaced.

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Relay Board

Some ovens are equipped with a relay board. This circuit board has several relays which control the switching of electrical current to the oven heat source. If the oven won’t turn off it may be that one or more of the relays on the relay board have failed. If this happens replace the relay board. The relays on the board are not sold separately.

Oven self cleaning problem

Door Lock Motor and Switch Assembly

For an oven self cleaning problem, the first thing to check is the door lock motor and switch assembly. Every self cleaning oven door has a locking mechanism to prevent the door from being opened during the cleaning cycle. An oven self cleaning problem often happens after a clean cycle has been run. If that happens, help may be needed to help figure out how to repair or replace the door lock motor and switch assembly because often the door is locked in the closed position. Manufacturers normally design the lock mechanism so that the door can be opened by removing certain screws or panels.

Temperature Control Thermostat

If there is an oven self cleaning problem the cause is often a defective oven thermostat. The oven thermostat regulates the self cleaning temperature and also provides the electrical current necessary to power the heating circuit. It is fairly common for the oven thermostat to work properly for baking and broiling but not for cleaning. The oven thermostat can’t be tested easily, and if it’s defective it will need to be replaced.

Oven Control Board

The oven control board has a set of relays that turn on and off power to the bake and broil circuits according to the customer settings and sensor input. An oven self-cleaning problem is sometimes caused by one of the heating components. However, if the oven control board is bad, it might not send voltage to the heating components. To determine what is causing the oven self-cleaning problem, first test the simpler components in the circuit. The oven control board usually can’t be tested and will have to be replaced if it is defective.

Thermal Fuse

Although not as common, with an oven self cleaning problem the thermal fuse may have blown. The thermal fuse is designed to protect the appliance and help to prevent a fire. If the oven gets too hot, this fuse trips. The thermal fuse is not resettable and will have to be replaced. It can be checked for continuity. If it has continuity, it’s OK.

Door Switch

Although it is not common, with an oven self cleaning problem the door switch might be defective. The oven door has to be closed in order for the self cleaning cycle to begin and the door switch is often part of the circuit. For an oven self cleaning problem, first check the other, more likely components. If they check out, the door switch can be checked for continuity with an Ohm meter.

Oven door repair

Door Hinge

An oven door repair may be needed if the door hinge breaks or is bent out of shape. Oven doors have two door hinges, a left and right. On some ovens the same hinge is used, on other ovens the right hinge and left hinge have different part numbers. The door hinge sometimes is sold with all necessary parts and springs, other times the parts need to be ordered separately. An oven door repair for a door hinge is a relatively easy repair for a do-it-yourselfer.

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Outer Door Glass

If the outer door glass is broken, it can be replaced. This oven door repair requires that the oven door be removed from the oven and layed down on a sturdy flat surface. The outer door glass is made of tempered glass. Use eye and hand protection when performing this oven door repair.

Oven fan keeps running

Oven Control Board

The oven control board has a set of relays that turn on and off power to the bake, broil and fan circuits according to the customer settings and sensor input. If the oven fan keeps running, one of the relays might have shorted out. The oven control board usually can’t be tested and will have to be replaced if it is defective.

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Convection Motor

If the oven fan keeps running after the oven is shut off, the convection motor might be shorted out. Remove the convection motor to inspect it for damage. Use an Ohm meter to see if it is shorted to ground. When an oven fan keeps running and the convection motor is at fault, the convection motor will have to be replaced, it is not repairable.

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Thermostat/High Limit Thermostat

When the oven fan keeps running after the oven has been switched off and cooled down the thermostat is often to blame. As the oven heats up the thermostat sends electrical current to the oven fan to keep the internal components cool. Once the appliance cools down the thermostat should turn the fan off. If the oven fan keeps running the oven thermostat/high Limit thermostat should be checked.

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